Yes. Well, we can all communicate (.) at the same time (.) by playing an instrument whereas if you are verbally communicating you cannot all talk at the same time, whereas we can all play a tune and all be heard at the same time. And then if you hear someone, you can pick up their rhythm and you can join in as well or maybe pick up someone else and join in with them. So, everybody is playing a tune and everybody is communicating and you can pick, (.) you know, certain tunes or sounds (.) or rhythms if you like and join in with the other person.
Further examples of work in this area include a series of studies investigating the effects of preferred music upon a variety of psychological variables. In these studies, participants listened to self-selected music during a perceptual experiment. Results showed positive effects upon pain and tolerance levels in laboratory settings where participants listened to different types of experimental stimuli while undergoing the cold presser technique (Mitchell, MacDonald, & Knussen, 2008). This technique invites participants to place their hands in cold water until the water becomes too cold.
This discussion also has relevance to music medicine interventions because, as stated above, music medicine interventions place particular emphasis upon the structural features of music and relationship between these structural features and therapeutic outcomes.
The results from the quantitative studies highlighted the impact that music interventions can have on discrete personal and social factors. The qualitative examples suggest that involvement in musical activities also has more general effects on the way in which people think about both themselves and their position within society. These two developments are related in that music can be thought of as not only facilitating specific changes in musical and psychological factors, but also as contributing to the identity projects in which the individuals are engaged. Whilst the above examples focuses our debate upon the activities of one particular music company, this has been presented as an example of how any musical participation, suitably structured, can be an excellent vehicle for leading to musical and personal gains for participants. These effects will not only be found with participants in Limelight activities, but rather suggest that when music is employed for therapeutic/educational objectives in a structured and goal-directed way by individuals with musical expertise and training, then outcomes of the type reported here can be expected.
Originally conceived as a one-off concert with a message against racism, Rock Against Racism was founded in 1976 by Red Saunders, Roger Huddle, Jo Wreford, Pete Bruno and others. According to Huddle, \"it remained just an idea until August 1976\", when Eric Clapton made a declaration of support for former Conservative minister Enoch Powell (known for his anti-immigration Rivers of Blood speech) at a concert in Birmingham. Clapton told the crowd that England had \"become overcrowded\" and that they should vote for Powell to stop Britain from becoming \"a black colony\". He also told the audience that Britain should \"get the foreigners out, get the wogs out, get the coons out\", and then he repeatedly shouted the National Front slogan \"Keep Britain White\". Saunders, Wreford and Bruno, who were members of the agit-prop theatre group, Kartoon Klowns, together with Huddle, responded by writing a letter to NME expressing their opposition to Clapton's remarks. They claimed these were all the more disgusting because he had a hit with a cover of Bob Marley's \"I Shot the Sheriff\":
At this time other well-known rock musicians also made inflammatory statements, including David Bowie, who expressed support for fascism and admiration for Adolf Hitler in interviews with Playboy, NME and a Swedish publication. Bowie was quoted as saying: \"I think Britain could benefit from a fascist leader. After all, fascism is really nationalism ... I believe very strongly in fascism, people have always responded with greater efficiency under a regimental leadership.\" He was also quoted as saying: \"Adolf Hitler was one of the first rock stars\" and \"You've got to have an extreme right front come up and sweep everything off its feet and tidy everything up.\" Bowie caused further controversy by allegedly making a Nazi salute while riding in a convertible, although he has always strongly denied this, insisting that a photographer simply caught him in the middle of waving. He later expressed regret and shame for these statements, blaming them on a combination of an obsession with occultism and Friedrich Nietzsche, as well as his excessive drug use at the time. He said: \"I have made my two or three glib, theatrical observations on English society and the only thing I can now counter with is to state that I am NOT a fascist.\" By the 1980s, Bowie's public statements and imagery in his art had shifted towards anti-racism and anti-fascism. In an interview with MTV anchor Mark Goodman in 1983, Bowie aggressively criticised the channel for not providing enough coverage of Black musicians. Bowie described his videos for \"China Girl\" and \"Let's Dance\" as \"simple\" statements against racism, and his album Tin Machine as taking a more direct stance against fascism and neo-Nazism.
The first RAR gig took place at the Princess Alice pub in Forest Gate in London's East End in November 1976; Carol Grimes and Matumbi were the main acts. At the end of the gig the bands took part in a jam, something which was to become a signature of RAR's gigs at a time when it was still rare for black and white musicians to perform together. In the same year RAR launched its revolutionary fanzine, Temporary Hoarding, going on to produce 15 issues over the next five years. By 1977 local RAR groups were springing up all over the country, including in Leeds, Birmingham, Manchester, Hull, Newcastle, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Belfast, Sheffield, Cardiff, Swansea, Bristol, and across London. Eventually there were more than 200 throughout the UK. Across the globe, several RAR groups started in the United States, in New York, San Francisco and Chicago, and also in Ireland, France, Belgium, Sweden, the Netherlands, Germany, Norway, Denmark, South Africa and Australia.
With support for the movement growing, in 1978 RAR organised two national Carnivals in London in conjunction with the Anti-Nazi League (ANL) to counteract the rising number of racist attacks in the UK. These were held in poor but vibrant multi-racial areas. On 30 April 1978, 100,000 people marched six miles from Trafalgar Square to the East End of London (a National Front hotspot) for an open-air concert at Victoria Park in Hackney. The concert featured The Clash, Steel Pulse, Tom Robinson Band, X-Ray Spex, Jimmy Pursey (from Sham 69), and Patrik Fitzgerald. The Southall-based reggae band Misty In Roots led the parade from the back of a lorry. For the second Carnival, on 24 September, a similar number of people marched from Hyde Park, crossing the Thames until they arrived at Brockwell Park in Brixton for a concert featuring Aswad, Elvis Costello and Stiff Little Fingers.
In 1978 a sister organisation, Rock Against Sexism (RAS) was founded by a group of women concerned about sexism in the music communities. Lucy Toothpaste from RAR became a lead organiser, and the south east London RAR group became an RAS collective. There was significant overlap between the two groups, with the larger, more established RAR sometimes providing security and other assistance at RAS events.
Also in April 1979, a demonstration organised by the Southall Youth Movement against the National Front, who were standing candidates in the upcoming general election, was attacked by the police. This resulted in the death of schoolteacher Blair Peach, and dozens of injuries including the head wounds suffered by Clarence Baker from Misty in Roots, which left him in a coma for several months. RAR quickly organised two benefit concerts at The Rainbow Theatre in North London, called \"Southall Kids Are Innocent\". The Clash, Pete Townshend of The Who, The Enchanters, The Pop Group, Misty in Roots, Aswad, The Members and The Ruts all performed.
Starting in 1979, German anti-fascists used the banner Rock gegen Rechts as the motto of concerts and festivals held irregularly against far-right politics as a form of political demonstration in Germany and Austria.
In 2002, some music fans,[vague] affiliated with Unite Against Fascism, concerned about a resurgence of nationalist and racist activity in the UK, organised a new group under the name of one of RAR's best-known slogans: \"Love Music Hate Racism\". They put on a concert at The Astoria in London featuring Mick Jones, Buzzcocks, and The Libertines.
In 2019, White Riot, a documentary about the birth of Rock Against Racism featuring activists and performers from the time, premiered in competition at the BFI London Film Festival. Directed by Rubika Shah and co-written and produced by Ed Gibbs, it won the Best Documentary Prize (Grierson Award) at the festival's closing night awards. It went on to win additional prizes at the Berlin, Krakow and IndieLisboa international film festivals, prior to a general release.
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There is an established and growing body of evidence highlighting that music can influence behavior across a range of diverse domains (Miell, MacDonald, & Hargreaves 2005). One area of interest is the monitoring of \"internal timing mechanisms\", with features such as tempo, liking, perceived affective nature and everyday listening contexts implicated as important (North & Hargreaves, 2008). The current study addresses these issues by comparing the effects of self-selected and experimenter-selected music (fast and slow) on actual and perceived performance of a driving game activity. Seventy participants completed three laps of a driving game in seven sound conditions: (1) silence; (2) car sounds; (3) car sounds with self-selected music, and car sounds with experimenter-selected music; (4) high-arousal (70 bpm); (5) high-arousal (130 bpm); (6) low-arousal (70 bpm); and (7) low-arousal (130 bpm) music. Six performance measures (time, accuracy, speed, and retrospective perception of these), and four experience measures (perceived distraction, liking, appropriateness and enjoyment) were taken. Exposure to self-selected music resulted in overestimation of elapsed time and inaccuracy, while benefiting accuracy and experience. In contrast, exposure to experimenter-selected music resulted in poorest performance and experience. Increasing the tempo of experimenter-selected music resulted in faster performance and increased inaccuracy for high-arousal music, but did not impact experience. It is suggested that personal meaning and subjective associations connected to self-selected music promoted increased engagement with the activity, overriding detrimental effects attributed to unfamiliar, less liked and less appropriate experimenter-selected music. 153554b96e